## Conversion of temperature scale

The Celsius scale and the Fahrenheit scale are different temperature scales. If the temperature of an object is measured and expressed on a Celsius scale, then we want to state the temperature of the object on the Fahrenheit scale...

## Thermometers and temperature scales

1. Thermometers The tool designed to measure temperature is a thermometer. There are many types of thermometers, but the working principle is the same. Usually, we use thermometric objects, the nature of matter that changes with temperature. If the...

## The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

So far we have only observed the thermal equilibrium experienced by two objects in contact. To understand the concept of thermal equilibrium in more depth, let’s review three objects (say objects A, object B, and objects C). For example,...

## Definition of temperature and thermal equilibrium

Definition of temperature Ever touched ice? What do you feel when your hands touch ice? What if what you touch is fire? When touching ice, your hands feel cold, when you touch the fire, your hands feel hot. Hot,...

## Phases of matter (based on microscopic properties)

In everyday life, we often encounter three different phase of matter. There are solid substances (e.,g. stones, iron, etc.), liquids (water, gasoline, etc.) and gas substances (air, etc.). The three-phase of these substances can be distinguished based on their...

## Atomic theory and kinetic theory

Atomic theory For thousands of years, the ancient Greeks believed that every pure substance (such as gold, iron, etc.) consisted of atoms. According to them, if a pure substance is cut into small pieces, then the tiny parts are...

## Changes of phase, critical temperature, triple point

In the discussion of the ideal gas law, it has been explained that the ideal gas law describes the behavior of real gas accurately only when the pressure and density of real gas are not too large. If the...

## Van der Waals Equation of State

Van der Walls is the name of a Dutch physicist, J. D. van der Waals (1837-1923). The Van der Waals Equation of State is an equation of state of gas, similar to The equation of state of an ideal...

## Evaporation

The evaporation process can be explained using kinetic theory. Like gas molecules, water molecules also move. The difference is that water molecules cannot be scattered because the attraction between molecules is still able to hold them together. Conversely, the...

## Boiling

Boiling is a process of changing liquid into gas. Boiling occurs when the saturated vapor pressure is equal to the air pressure ( air pressure = atmospheric pressure). We only discuss boiling water. The saturated vapor pressure of water...