## Black principle

1. Definition of Black principle If we mix hot and cold water in an open container (for example a bucket), heat transfer from hot water to cold water. Because the container is open, then some heat moves into the...

1. Definition of the heat transfer by radiation How does it feel if you wear black clothes on a hot day or when you are exercising during the day? Compare with when you wear white clothes? If you wear...

## Heat transfer by convection

Ever been by the beach when it was sunny? On a clear day, on the beach, there is always wind blowing from the sea. Why is there always a wind on the beach and why do the sea breeze...

## Heat transfer by conduction

1. Definition of the heat transfer by conduction If you sit in a wooden chair, the surface of the wooden chair becomes warm. Conversely, if you sit in a chair made of plastic or metal, the surface of a...

## Latent heat

If you put a mercury thermometer into a container containing a mixture of cold water and ice, you will observe after moving downwards, the surface of the mercury stops moving. Mercury’s surface stops moving after reaching the temperature of...

## Specific heat and heat capacity

1. Specific heat (c) Specific heat (c) = the amount of heat (Q) needed to raise the temperature (T) one unit of mass (m) of objects by one degree. The equation of the specific heat : The International System...

## Definition of heat, mechanical equivalent of heat, equation of heat

1. Definition of heat If objects that have temperature differences touch each other, there will be heat transfer from high-temperature objects to low-temperature objects. Heat transfer stops after touching objects reach the same temperature. For example, if we mix...

## Anomalous behavior of water below 4°C

Each object expands (the volume of objects increases) when the temperature increases and objects shrink (the volume of objects decreases) when the temperature decreases. Water also expands when the temperature increases and shrinks when the temperature decreases, but not...

## Volume expansion

Linear expansion is experienced only by solid objects; volume expansion is experienced by all objects, both solid, liquid and gas. The equation of volume expansion is similar to the equation of the linear expansion. Description: Vo = Initial volume,...

## Linear expansion

Most solid objects experience a linear expansion when the temperature changes. The linear expansion is the length of the object increases or the length of the object decreases. Usually, the length of the object increases when the temperature increases,...